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ARTICLES

COMMUNITY POLICING SERIES
Perceptions of Safety
:
A comparison of foot patrol versus motor patrol
by Robert Trojanowicz and Dennis Bnas
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APPENDIX A (click here to return to the Perceptions of Safety narrative)
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Table 1
Identifying Data for Motor and Foot Officers (See Also Table 1a)

  Rank Shifts Worked
Race*
Gender*
Age
 
Military Experience
 
Number of Years as
Flint Police Officer
Position Patrol
Officers
 
After-
Days      noons
Male - Female Black - White Male - Female 30 or less 31-35; 36-40; 41-45; 46
Black White Black White No - Yes 0-5   6-10  11-15   16+ Total
Foot 
Officer
(64)
 
56.1
(33)
 
51.6
(31)
 
48.4
(45)
 
70.3
(19)
 
29.7
(23)
 
36.5
(40)
 
63.5
(11)
 
17.5
(34)
 
54.0
(12)
 
19.0
(6)
 
9.5
(22)
 
34.4
(16)
 
25.0
(17)
 
26.5
(6)
 
9.4
(3)
 
4.7
(43)
 
67.2
(21)
 
32.8
(12)
 
18.8
(31)
 
48.4
(13)
 
20.3
(8)
 
12.5
(64)
 
100.0
Motor 
Officer
(50)
 
43.9
(22)
 
44.0
(28)
 
56.0
(42)
 
84.0
(8)
 
16.0
(10)
 
20.0
(40)
 
80.0
(7)
 
14.0
(35)
 
70.0
(3)
 
6.0
(5)
 
10.0
(33)
 
66.0
(9)
 
18.0
(3)
 
6.0
(3)
 
6.0
(2)
 
4.0
(39)
 
78.0
(11)
 
22.0
(21)
 
42.0
(20)
 
40.0
(4)
 
8.0
(5)
 
10.0
(50)
 
100.0
Total
(114)
 
100.0
(55)
 
48.2
(59)
 
51.8
(87)
 
76.3
(27)
 
23.7
(33)
 
29.2
(80)
 
70.8
(18)
 
15.9
(69)
 
61.1
(15)
 
13.3
(11)
 
9.7
(55)
 
48.2
(25)
 
21.9
(20)
 
17.5
(9)
 
7.9
(5)
 
4.4
(82)
 
71.9
(32)
 
28.1
(33)
 
29.0
(51)
 
44.7
(17)
 
14.9
(13)
 
11.4
(114)
 
100.0
 *Note: 1 Oriental not included in data on race.

Table 1a
Percentage Table on Number of Years as Flint Police Officer (Race and Gender Controlled)

RACE*
Position
WHITE
BLACK
 
Total 
Male
Female
Male
Female
0-5
6-10
11-15
16+
0-5
6-10
11-15
16+
0-5
6-10
11-15
16+
0-5
6-10
11-15
16+
Foot 
Officer
(5)
 
7.9
(12)
 
19.0
(9)
 
14.3
(8)
 
12.7
(3)
 
4.8
(3)
 
4.8
(0)
 
0.0
(0)
 
0.0
(2)
 
3.2
(5)
 
7.9
(4)
 
6.3
(0)
 
0.0
(2)
 
3.2
(10)
 
15.9
(0)
 
0.0
(0)
 
0.0
(63) 
 

100.0

Motor 
Officer
(15)
 
30.0
(13)
 
26.0
(2)
 
4.0
(5)
 
10.0
(2)
 
4.0
(3)
 
6.0
(0)
 
0.0
(0)
 
0.0
(3)
 
6.0
(2)
 
4.0
(2)
 
4.0
(0)
 
0.0
(1)
 
2.0
(2)
 
4.0
(0)
 
0.0
(0)
 
0.0
(50)
 
100.0
*Note: 1 Asian American not included in data on race.
 

Table 2
Comparison of 22 Foot Officers Versus 47 Motor Officers
to Determine Perceptions of Safety (1980)
(See Also Tables 2a-2e)

How safe do you personally feel:
Foot officers feel safer than
motor officers at this level  of significance
a. Walking in your area (or driving in your area)                   .000 
b. Entering buildings in your area                   .009 
c. Answering complaints in your area                   .003
d. Helping victims in your area                   .002
e. Conducting field interviews in your area                   .001

Table 2a
Percentage Table on Officers' Perceptions of Safety:
Walking (or driving) in Own Area

(Count) 
Row Pct
Perceptions of Safety 
 
Safe Very safe Total
(28)
59.6
(19)
40.4
(47)
100.0
Level of Significance: .000

Table 2b
Percentage Table on Officers' Perceptions of Safety:
Entering Buildings in Own Area

(Count) 
Row Pct
Perceptions of Safety
Position Not safe Very safe Safe Total
Foot Officer
  (2) 
 9.1 
     (7) 
     31.8 
     (13) 
     59.1 
(22)
100.0
Motor Officer
 (7) 
 14.9 
(29)
61.7
(11)
23.4
(47)
100.0
Level of Significance:  .009

Table 2c
Percentage Table on Officers' Perceptions of Safety:
Answering Complaints in Own Area

(Count) 
Row Pct
Perceptions of Safety 
Postiion Not safe Somewhat safe Very safe Total
Foot Officer
  (0) 
 0.0 
     (10) 
     45.5 
     (12) 
     54.5 
(22)
100.0
Motor Officer
 (4) 
 8.5 
(33)
70.2
(10)
21.3
(47)
100.0
Level of Significance:  .003

Table 2d
Percentage Table on Officers' Perceptions of Safety:
Helping Victims in Own Area

(Count) 
Row Pct
Perceptions of Safety 
Position Not safe Somewhat safe Very safe Total
Foot Officer   (0)   0.0       (5)       22.7       (17)       77.3  (22) 100.0
Motor Officer  (5)   10.9  (27) 58.7 (14) 30.4 (46) 100.0
Level of Significance:  .001
Note:  1 motor officer data missing

Table 3
Comparison of 64 Motor Officers Versus 50 Foot Officers
to Determine Perceptions of Safety (1984)
(See Also Tables 3a-3g)

How safe do you personally feel: 

Foot officers feel safer than motor officers at this level of significance

a. Walking in your area (or driving in your area)                   .0203 
b. Entering buildings in your area                   .0002 
c. Answering complaints in your area                   .0011
d. Helping victims in your area                   .0002
e. Conducting field interviews in your area                   .0020
f. Walking in the area out of uniform                   .0003
g. Walking in the area off duty                   .0000

Table 3a
Percentage Table on Officers' Perceptions of Safety:
Walking or Driving in Own Area
(Count) 
Row Pct
Perceptions of Safety 
Position Not safe Somewhat safe Very safe Total
Foot Officer
  (0) 
 0.0 
     (25) 
     39.1 
     (29) 
     60.9 
(64)
100.0
Motor Officer
 (4) 
 8.0 
(25)
50.0
(21)
42.0
(50)
100.0
Level of Significance:  .0203

Table 3b
Percentage Table on Officers' Perceptions of Safety:
Entering Buildings in Own Area

(Count) 
Row Pct Perceptions of Safety 
Position Not safe Somewhat safe Very safe Total
Foot Officer
  (3) 
 4.7 
     (34) 
     53.1 
     (27) 
     42.2 
(64)
100.0
Motor Officer
 (10) 
 20.0 
(35)
70.0
(5)
10.0
(50)
100.0
 Level of Significance: .0002

Table 3c
Percentage Table on Officers' Perceptions of Safety:
Answering Complaints in Own Area

(Count) 
Row Pct Perceptions of Safety 
Position Not safe Somewhat safe Very safe Total
Foot Officer
  (1) 
 1.6 
     (29) 
     45.3 
     (34) 
     53.1 
(64)
100.0
Motor Officer
 (3) 
 6.0 
(37)
74.0
(10)
20.0
(50)
100.0
Level of Significance:  .0011

Table 3d
Percentage Table on Officers' Perceptions of Safety:
Helping Victims in Own Area

(Count) 
Row Pct
Perceptions of Safety 
Position Not safe Somewhat safe Very safe Total
Foot Officer
  (0) 
 0.0 
     (31) 
     48.4 
     (33) 
     51.6 
(64)
100.0
Motor Officer
 (4) 
 8.0 
(34)
68.0
(12)
24.0
(50)
100.0
 Level of Significance:  .0020

Table 3f
Percentage Table on Officers' Perceptions of Safety:
Walking Out of Uniform in Own Area

(Count) 
Row Pct
Perceptions of Safety 
Position Not safe Somewhat safe Very safe Total
Foot Officer
  (3) 
 4.7 
     (27) 
     42.2 
     (34) 
     53.1 
(64)
100.0
Motor Officer
 (11) 
 22.0 
(29)
58.0
(10)
20.0
(50)
100.0
     Level of Significance:  .0003

Table 3g
Percentage Table on Officers' Perceptions of Safety:
Walking Off Duty in Own Area

(Count) 
Row Pct
Perceptions of Safety 
Position Not safe Somewhat safe Very safe Total
Foot Officer
  (1) 
 1.6 
     (30) 
     46.9 
     (33) 
     51.6 
(64)
100.0
Motor Officer
 (13) 
 26.0 
(28)
56.0
(9)
18.0
(50)
100.0
 Level of Significance:  .0000

Table 4
Percentage Table on Officers' Estimate of Residents' Feelings
on Danger in Own Patrol Area

Estimate of Residents Feelings
Position Overestimate Right on target Understimate Total
Foot Officer
  (23) 
 35.9 
     (30) 
     46.9 
     (11) 
     17.2 
(64)
100.0
Motor Officer
 (3) 
 6.0 
(30)
60.0
(17)
34.0
(50)
100.0
Level of Significance:  .0005

Table 5
Percentage Table on Foot Officers' and Motor Officers'
Perceptions of Residents' Willingness to Actively Come to Their Aid
(See Also Table 5a)

Responses to: How active would residents
be in helping if you were in trouble?
Position Not active Somewhat active Very active Total
Foot Officer
  (6) 
 9.4 
     (40) 
     62.5 
     (18) 
     28.1 
(64)
100.0
Motor Officer
 (20) 
 40.0 
(30)
60.0
(0)
0.0
(50)
100.0
 Level of Significance:  .0000

Table 5a
Percentage Table on Foot and Motor Officers' Perceptions on
How Active Residents Would be Helping if Officer Were in Trouble
(Race and Gender Controlled)

Cell data:
(Count)
Row Pct
 
Col Pct
PERCEPTIONS OF RESIDENTS' LEVEL OF ACTIVITY
BLACK
WHITE
Male
Female
Male
Female
Position
Not 
Some
what
Very
Not
Some
what
Very
Not 
Some
what
Very
Not
Some
what
Very
 
Total    
Foot 
Officer
0
0.0
0.0
8
12.7
57.1
3
4.8
100.0
0
0.0
0.0
7
11.1
77.8
5
7.9
100.0
5
7.9
22.7
23
36.5
56.1
6
9.5
100.0
1
1.6
50.0
2
3.2
33.3
3
4.8
100.0
63
100.0
55.8
Motor 
Officer
1
2.0
100.0
6
12.0
42.9
0
0.0
0.0
1
2.0 
100.0
2
4.0
22.2
0
0.0
0.0
17
34.0
77.3
18
36.0
43.9
0
0.0
0.0
1
2.0
50.0
4
8.0
66.7
0
0.0
0.0
50
100.0
44.2
Total
1
0.9
100.0
14
12.4
100.0
3
2.7
100.0
1
0.9
100.0
9
7.9
100.0
5
4.4
100.0
22
19.5
100.0
41
36.3
100.0
6
5.3
100.0
2
1.8
100.0
6
5.3
100.0
3
2.6
100.0
113
100.0
100.0

Table 6
Percentage Table on Perceptions of Safety of Motor Officers
and Foot Officers in Own Patrol Area Compared to the Rest of Flint
(see also Table 6a)

Perceptions of Safety
Position
Safer
Same
Less Safe
Total
Foot  
Officer
(29)
45.3
(27)
42.2
(8)
12.5
(64)
100.0
Motor  
Officer
(11)
22.0
(20)
40.0
(19)
38.0
(50)
100.0
Level of Significance: .0024

Table 6a
Percentage Table on Perceptions of Safety in Own Area,
As Compared to Rest of Flint, of Foot Officers and Motor Officers
(Race and Gender Controlled)

BLACK
WHITE
Male
Female
Male
Female
Position
Safer
Same
Less
Safe
Safer
Same
Less
Safe
Safer
Same
Less
Safe
Safer
Same
Less
Safe
Grand
Total
Foot 
Officer
(2)
66.7
(7)
63.6
(2)
50.0
(3)
100.0
(7)
77.8
(2)
66.7
(19)
65.5
(12)
52.2
(3)
17.6
(4)
100.0
(1)
25.0
(1)
33.3
 
Motor 
Officer
(1)
33.3
(4)
36.4
(2)
50.0
(0)
0.0
(2)
22.2
(1)
33.3
(10)
34.5
(11)
47.8
(14)
82.4
(0)
0.0
(3)
75.0
(2)
66.7
 
Total
(3)
100.0
(11)
100.0
(4)
100.0
(3)
100.0
(9)
100.0
(3)
100.0
(29)
100.0
(23)
100.0
(17)
100.0
(4)
100.0
(4)
100.0
(3)
100.0
(113)
100.0
 
Note: 1 Asian American not included.

Table 7
Percentage Table on Officers' Estimate of Average Week's Number of Stop-and-Frisks

Number of Stop-and-Frisks in an Average Week
Position
>1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Total
Foot 
Officer
(47)
73.4
(10)
15.6
(3)
4.7
(4)
6.3
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(64)
100.0
Motor 
Officer
(7)
14.0
(7)
14.0
(7)
14.0
(25)
50.0
(1)
2.0
(1)
2.0
(0)
0.0
(2)
4.0
(50)
100.0
 

Table 8
Officers' Perceptions of Effectiveness in Improving Police Community Relations

(Count)
Row Pct
Over the last few months, to what extent have you felt you were improving the police/community relations?
Position
Not
at all
Some
Extent
Very Great
Extent
Total
Foot 
Officer
(1)
1.6
(16)
25.0
(47)
73.4
(64)
100.0
Motor 
Officer
(11)
22.0
(31)
62.0
(8)
16.0
(50)
100.0
Level of Significance: .0000


The Community Policing Series was published in the late 1980s and early 1990s by the National Center for Community Policing at Michigan State University's School of Criminal Justice, with support from the C. S. Mott Foundation of Flint, Michigan. This article appeared in 1985.